This is reflected in Turkey`s military concentrations on the borders with Iraq and Syria and their engagement on the Red Sea through an agreement on the Sudanese island of Sawken and the Turkish military intervention in the northern Syrian city of Afrin. In return, Turkey renounced all claims to former Turkish territories outside its new borders and pledged to guarantee the rights of its minorities. A separate agreement between Greece and Turkey provided for the compulsory exchange of minorities. The Treaty of Sèvres imposed much stricter conditions on the Ottoman Empire than those imposed on the German Empire by the Treaty of Versailles.   As early as 1915, France, Italy and Britain had begun to secretly plan the partition of the Ottoman Empire. . . .